Sherry Christiansen

Sherry Christiansen is a Freelance Medical Writer with an extensive clinical background. Sherry has worked directly with patients in a clinical setting –facilitating groups and managing an outpatient center—as well as writing and researching medical articles on health and wellness (including mental health and substance abuse topics). Sherry also led a small team of writers in the role of Chief Editor for a Seniors’ health and wellness website. With diverse research, writing and editing skills, Sherry has written & edited hundreds of published articles, backed by the most recent scientific research

Sherry’s articles and website content is published on prestigious websites such as Verywell Health, Medical News Today, Healthline, and NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center's Alzheimer’s Prevention Clinic (

Featured Articles

Alzheimer’s Prevention Education: If We Build It, Will They Come?

Internet-based educational interventions could reduce the global burden of disability of dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Determining the effects, ideal timing, and costs of behaviors and disease-modifying interventions to prevent AD throughout the lifespan represent important aims of current and future prevention research (1–3). To answer these questions, AD prevention trials will require large cohorts of asymptomatic subjects of various ages, followed over many years, assessed within

Early diagnosis of memory loss may help prevent Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease has been predicted as the next global public health crisis facing the modern world. In fact, approximately 5.1 million people in the U.S. are said to suffer from Alzheimer’s, and even more are affected worldwide. As we age, the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease continues to rise, and with the growing senior population, these numbers are expected to grow exponentially. But few people are aware that if you catch memory loss issues early enough, there’s a lot you can do to preven

Crouse Health: Leading the Way in Robotic Surgery — Past, Present and Future

Since its inception in 2008, the Crouse Institute for Robotic Surgery has evolved to become the largest multispecialty robotic surgery program in Central New York. Crouse Health has a sizable team of highly skilled, experienced surgeons, each committed to the use of the newest, most advanced surgical technology available today. Surgeons at Crouse Health continually enhance their minimally invasive surgical skills in order to offer their patients the highest level of care possible. Surgeons and

Medical Technology

The Best At-Home Diabetes Tests for 2021

Our editors independently research, test, and recommend the best products, and articles are reviewed by healthcare professionals for medical accuracy. You can learn more about our review process here . We may receive commissions on purchases made from our chosen links. According to a 2020 National Diabetes Statistics Report, 34.2 million Americans were found to have diabetes. This number represents 10.5% of the population in the United States. Another 88 million people have a condition that is o

What to Expect Before, During and After Robotic Surgery

Robotic surgery (also called robotic-assisted surgery) is perhaps the most cutting-edge medical technology of modern times. The most widely used system today involves a camera and the use of very small surgical tools attached to robotic arms. A specially trained surgeon controls the robotic arms from a viewing screen, which is usually situated in the same room as the operating table. But the viewing screen could be located far away, allowing surgeons to perform telesurgery from remote locations

Glasses for Macular Degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a condition of the eyes involving progressive damage to the macula (an area on the retina responsible for clear central vision). The condition results in low vision. Low vision is defined as visual impairment resulting in visual acuity of 20/70 or worse. Low vision that is due to eye disease cannot be corrected with regular eyeglasses. If you have AMD, you may be happy to learn that there are several options for special glasses designed specifically

Manage Your Diabetes With Wearable Tech

Scientists and medical device manufacturers are exploring wearable devices to control the complexities of diabetes. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved several types of revolutionary wearable tech for people with diabetes—and newer technology may be on the horizon. There are several innovative wearable technology models that have been recently approved (since 2018) by the FDA. Wearable tech for people with diabetes includes devices such as continuous glucose monitori


What to Know About Inspra (Eplerenone)

Inspra (eplerenone) is a drug used for the treatment of high blood pressure and heart failure after a heart attack. Inspra is in a class of drugs called mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists or selective aldosterone receptor antagonists. Aldosterone antagonists are also considered water pills (diuretics). Simply put, they work to block the action of a steroid in the body called aldosterone (a substance that is a key determinant of fluid volume in the body, thereby influencing blood pressure).

Patient-Controlled Anesthesia (PCA)

Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a type of pain management system that allows patients to make their own decisions as to when they need to take a dose of pain medication. The medication is administered through a PCA pump and can be used to treat acute (sudden, severe), chronic (long-term), or postoperative (after surgery) pain. It can also be utilized in obstetrics for the management of labor pain. When it comes to pain management, it is helpful to understand your options so you and your h

Bumex vs. Lasix: Compare Hypertension Treatment

Bumetanide (Bumex) and furosemide (Lasix) are both in a class of drugs called loop diuretics. A drug class includes medications with similar actions, chemical structure as well as those that have the same physiologic (the normal functions of a living being) effects. Loop diuretics are strong water pills that are prescribed for conditions such as congestive heart failure or other maladies that cause an excess build-up of fluid (edema) in the body. Bumex and Lasix (and other loop diuretics) work

An Ace Inhibitor Used for Hypertension and Heart Failure

Enalapril (brand name Vasotec) is a prescription anti-hypertensive drug to lower high blood pressure. The primary action of enalapril is to lower the blood pressure, making it easier for the heart to circulate sufficiently around the body. Enalapril is in a class of drugs called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. These medications help lower blood pressure by working on the kidneys. They target an enzyme called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE is a chemical that makes the b

Research Articles

Macular Degeneration Breakthroughs: Emerging Treatments, New Research

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in the United States. The condition may be present in two forms, including wet AMD and dry AMD. There is currently no cure for AMD, and no treatment available for the dry form of the disease (other than preventative measures). Scientists are working hard to find new solutions in the form of macular degeneration breakthroughs, emerging treatments, and new research that can help people with AMD keep their vision for as l

Quick Alzheimer's Prevention Pearl: Study Shows Diagnostic Testing for Seniors Helps with Early Alzheimer's Diagnosis

Nearly 5 million people in the U.S. are estimated to have Alzheimer’s disease (AD) today, and the Alzheimer’s Association says that number could be as high as 16 million by 2050. This is why early detection is the cornerstone of much of the current Alzheimer’s research being done. Years before AD symptoms are detected, pathology begins in the brain. This includes amyloid plaques and tau tangles (abnormal clusters of sticky protein in the brain). These changes interfere with normal brain functio

What Is The FINGER Study?

The FINGER study is an ongoing landmark clinical research trial, aimed at discovering the effects of several factors, involving seniors with cognitive decline. The acronym FINGER stands for the “Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability.” The initial phase of the study, conducted in Finland, lasted from September of 2009 and was completed in December of 2011. But there are ongoing phases and updates being conducted to further evaluate the baseline inform

Alzheimer's Universe (): Free Online Course - Join Today!

Welcome to our Clinical Trials Page! Before a new drug or treatment can be used to treat a disease, it must first be carefully tested in a laboratory, then with live people, in what is called a clinical research trial, in order to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the drug or treatment. There is a protocol that is followed for every clinical trial, designed to answer a specific research question, as well as protecting the safety of the participants in the study. A protocol describes exa

Can Vitamin D Lower the Risk of Respiratory Infections?

When it comes to a healthy immune system to fight respiratory infections, there are conflicting views about what actually helps and what does not. The research on the efficacy of vitamin D for fighting off an infection is particularly impressive, however, especially when compared to that of other vitamins and supplements. For example, a 2017 study published in BMJ found that taking a vitamin D supplement reduced the risk of acute (sudden and severe) upper respiratory infection in every participa

Medical Articles

How Hodgkin Lymphoma Is Treated

Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of blood cancer that involves the lymphatic system. Treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma is usually based on the stage of this condition. In some instances, a person’s age, overall health, the location of the lymphoma, and other factors play a role in the type of treatment that is most effective. Because some Hodgkin treatment modalities can result in serious side effects that show up much later down the road, physicians may opt for a treatment plan with the lowest incidence

MiSight Contacts for Children With Myopia

MiSight contacts for children look just like normal, disposable, soft contact lenses. The lenses are worn for as long as a person is at risk for progression of myopia (nearsightedness). The contacts are packaged in individual wrappers for daily use and disposal at the end of the day. Myopia—also known as nearsightedness— is a very common condition of the eye that is growing more prevalent in recent years. It affects about 1/3 of adults in the U.S. (and a much higher number of adults in Asia).

Early morning headache: Causes and prevention

Many people wake up in the morning with a headache. There are various reasons for this, and treatment will depend on the cause and the type of headache. Some headache types are more common in the morning, such as migraine headaches. One rare type, called the hypnic headache, tends to wake people between 1 a.m. and 3 a.m. The pain usually lasts 30–60 minutes, and then the person can go back to sleep. Often, treating the underlying cause will help prevent an early morning headache. In this article

Causes of Metastatic Breast Cancer

Metastatic breast cancer (also called stage 4 breast cancer) is breast cancer that has spread to another part of the body, most commonly the liver, brain, bones, or lungs. Metastasis occurs when cancer cells separate from the original tumor, enter the blood or lymphatic channels (a large network of vessels in the body), and spread to the lymph nodes or other tissues or organs of the body. When breast cancer spreads to an area adjacent to the original tumor (such as the lymph nodes located under

How Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder Is Treated

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare condition involving the central nervous system (brain and spinal column). It is considered an autoimmune disease, because the underlying symptoms are caused by the immune system attacking its own cells and tissues (most commonly involving the spinal cord and the optic nerve). The most common form of this disorder—relapsing NMOSD—is characterized by flare-ups. The flare-ups (or relapses) can happen months, or even years apart. The other for

Hereditary Risk Factors of Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is an incurable condition, involving the loss of memory and cognitive skills. As the incidence of Alzheimer’s continues to rise, so too does the push for medical science to discover the cause of the disease. Is it genetic? If so, what are the hereditary risk factors of Alzheimer’s disease? As new discoveries develop in Alzheimer’s research, scientists are beginning to ascertain pieces to the puzzle concerning the cause. Many scientific discoveries are pointing to a strong li

The Benefits and Risks of Dental Amalgam

The controversy surrounding the safety of dental amalgam—a mixture of metals, including potentially-toxic mercury, used to fill in areas of a tooth where decay has been removed—is decades long. The American Dental Association (ADA) and other health organizations assert amalgam is safe for most patients, although there is a small group of people for whom alternative filling materials may be safer. If you have a cavity that needs to filled and your dentist plans to use amalgam, you may be interest

How Are Atonic Seizures Different?

Atonic seizures (also known as drop attacks) are one of several types of seizures that can occur as a result of various underlying causes. “Atonic” means loss of muscle tone. This type of seizure is also known as akinetic or drop seizures. Atonic seizures oftentimes begin during childhood and are most common in children, although they may continue into adulthood. This type of seizure is often present in people who have other types of seizures as well, such as tonic or myoclonic seizures. Atoni

The 6 Best Medicare Supplement Insurance Companies of 2021

As the cost of healthcare continues to increase, so do the out-of-pocket costs for services that are not covered by Original Medicare. On average, Medicare only pays approximately 80% of your overall medical costs. In fact, in 2016, the average person with Medicare spent $5,460 in out-of-pocket expenses for healthcare. Moreover, during the same year, 50% of Medicare beneficiaries spent at least 12% of their income on out-of-pocket expenses, and 25% spent at least 23% of their income on such expe

Surgery & Transplant Procedures

What to Expect from a Stem Cell Transplant

Stem cell transplants are used to treat some types of cancer, particularly those of the blood or immune system such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, or lymphoma. The stem cells can be taken from a donor (allogeneic stem cell transplant) or they may be harvested from the person who is receiving the stem cell transplant (autologous stem cell transplant). The procedure involves harvesting (taking) healthy stem cells from bone marrow, blood, or cord blood (from a newborn). During cancer treatment, bo

What to Expect from an Autologous Stem Cell Transplant

An autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is one that uses healthy hemopoietic stem cells (those that form the blood cells) from a person’s own body—instead of taking stem cells from a donor—to replace diseased bone marrow or bone marrow damaged by cancer treatment. Another method of autologous stem cell transplant is an autologous bone marrow transplant. The stem cells may be harvested either from the blood, using an apheresis procedure, or from the bone marrow, being aspirated using a long ne

Heart Bypass Surgery Overview

Heart bypass surgery, or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, is done when coronary arteries, which supply your heart with oxygenated blood, become blocked or damaged. If these arteries are blocked or blood flow is restricted, the heart doesn’t work properly. This surgery may be recommended for those with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), which means that plaque has built up in the arteries to the point that it is blocking the supply of blood to the heart. This blockage is usual

What Is Endovascular Surgery?

Once you compare endovascular surgery and open surgery, you may wonder why open surgery is used at all. There are patient- and procedure-specific differences that drive the decision to perform one or the other. Not all procedures can be safely and effectively approached using an endovascular technique. These include: • The shape and location of the aneurysm • The blockage may be too extensive • Open surgical repair may last longer, which is better for younger people • People may not like the lif

Retinal Detachment Surgery: Overview

Retinal detachment surgery is used to repair a detached retina, which occurs when the retina—a layer of tissue that covers most of the back of the eye—separates from its anchored position. If treatment of a detached retina is not performed immediately (within approximately 24 hours), permanent partial or complete vision loss can result. Retinal detachment surgery is considered an emergency procedure. The goal of surgery is to reattach the retina to the back of the eye as soon as possible so th

Gallbladder Surgery: What to Expect on the Day of Surgery

To thoroughly understand what happens the day of gallbladder surgery, it’s important to know which type of surgery you will be having and why. In most circumstances, when the gallbladder is diseased, it is the result of gallstones. But there are other underlying conditions that may warrant gallbladder surgery, such as cancer of the gallbladder or inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis). Usually, the treatment of choice for various conditions of the gallbladder is a cholecystectomy (remo

Whipple Procedure: What to Expect on the Day of Surgery

A Whipple procedure (pancreaticoduodenectomy) is a type of surgery that involves several different procedures at once. It’s performed to treat pancreatic tumors and other pancreatic conditions, as well as disorders of the intestines and bile ducts. A Whipple procedure lasts four to six hours and is performed under general anesthesia. It requires a hospital stay of seven to 10 days. Prepare by taking a look at what will happen on the day of surgery. Follow your surgeon’s advice on when to stop

What to Expect From a Penis Transplant

A penis transplant is a rare and complex procedure that has only seen a few successes. While still being considered experimental, research is progressing. In 2006 a penis transplant was performed in China, but it was considered unsuccessful because the transplant recipient’s body rejected the organ. The first successful penis transplant was performed in South Africa in 2014, involving a 21-year-old recipient who lost his penis due to a failed circumcision. After the 2014 procedure proved succes

Nutrition, Health & Wellness

How to Deal With Irritation from Face Masks

Facial coverings are encouraged across the country during the COVID-19 pandemic. For some people, this protective measure may result in a bit of skin irritation. This can be a real problem, particularly for healthcare and essential workers who must wear face masks all day. One reason irritation occurs is that facial coverings do not allow airflow to the face; when a person breathes, moisture accumulates and becomes trapped on the face. That dark, warm environment can facilitate skin issues like

Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Treatment Options

Gluten sensitivity is a common problem involving an adverse reaction to gluten—a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. The primary treatment for gluten sensitivity from any cause is a change in diet. Several dietary recommendations have been used for gluten sensitivity treatment, including the gluten-free diet, FODMAPs, or a restricted α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATI diet). Gluten sensitivity can be severe (as in celiac disease) or mild, as in non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). The latt

What's the Best Temperature for Sleep?

According to the National Sleep Foundation, a general range for the optimal room temperature for sleep is between 60 and 67 degrees. But, the best temperature for sleep differs depending on age and other factors. Getting a good night’s sleep on a regular basis is a vital aspect of a person’s overall health and wellness. Sleep hygiene—habits that are favorable to sleeping well on a regular basis—is comprised of many different factors. Some of these include going to sleep and getting up at the s

Diabetes and Intermittent Fasting

Intermittent fasting is a type of eating plan that involves a limited time period when caloric intake is restricted. This can vary from fasting (not eating at all) all day long for several days per week, to simply limiting the number of calories that are ingested during the fasting period. There are specific intermittent fasting diets, such as those that restrict food intake after a specific time of day (usually during the evening hours), to those that rotate between eating normally and restrict

How Obesity Is Treated

The overall goal of successful obesity treatment is for a person to get to a healthy weight and stay there long-term. It seems straightforward, but obesity treatment is complex and variable. Several areas need to be addressed before an effective obesity treatment plan can be made, including: • Dietary changes (to what and/or how much is eaten) • Behavior modification (such as working on willpower and addressing emotional eating) In some cases, obesity treatment also involves prescription drugs

How many carbs should you eat each day to lose weight?

In this article, we take a look at how many carbs someone needs to eat to lose weight, and whether or not a low-carb diet is healthful? We also examine the best and worst sources of carbohydrates to eat. Carbohydrates are broken down into a simple form of energy called glucose. The body uses insulin to carry the glucose into the cells. When too many carbohydrates are consumed, the blood sugar level spikes, insulin rises, and the result of this is often weight gain. Carbohydrates are the body’s

What to Eat When You Have Hemochromatosis

Hemochromatosis is a genetic disorder that causes an excessive build-up of iron in the body. If left untreated, it can cause severe organ and joint damage and even death. The hemochromatosis diet enables a person with hemochromatosis to avoid foods that are high in iron as well as those that can increase the absorption of iron. The diet consists of foods that will provide ample protein and other nutrients to maintain optimal health without overloading the body with iron. Iron is considered an

What to Eat When You Have Cystic Fibrosis

A healthy diet for cystic fibrosis (CF) addresses the primary challenge of the disease—to provide ample macronutrients (such as fats, proteins, and carbohydrates) for normal weight maintenance, growth, and development. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that results in the body making thick mucus. This mucus accumulation can prevent the small intestine from absorbing vital nutrients, including fats and vitamins. The disease may also interfere with the normal function of the pancreas, inhibit

Women's Health

How Progesterone Promotes Brain Health

Progesterone is well known as a primary female sex hormone. It is required to regulate the menstrual cycle, vital for a woman to get pregnant (and maintain pregnancy), and needed for the early development of a human embryo. Progesterone is also considered an “endogenous steroid,” belonging to a group of steroid hormones called progestogens. The hormonal influence on the body is very complex. Hormones are molecules made up of chemical substances. They act as messengers of sorts. They are made in

What Is a Non-Stress Test?

A prenatal non-stress test (NST) is a common test done before birth (prenatal). It is used to ensure the health of the fetus before labor. The test assesses fetal heart rate and movement at around 26 to 28 weeks of gestation, but can also be done later in the pregnancy as needed. A non-stress test is noninvasive and does not pose any type of risk to the pregnant person or the fetus. If the test is failed, it usually indicates that more tests, further monitoring, or special care orders will be n

Important Facts About Low Estrogen

Estrogen, a hormone produced in the ovaries, plays a major role in the female reproductive system. Estrogen is considered a sex hormone because it regulates sexual development in females. It is also present in small amounts in males. Depending on the cause and effects of low estrogen, females who have low levels are sometimes prescribed synthetic estrogen. Estrogen is the hormone that is primarily responsible for the sexual development in girls as they reach puberty. • Initiates changes in bre

Does Chadwick's Sign Definitely Mean You're Pregnant?

Chadwick's sign is one of several physical changes that occur during pregnancy. It is an early sign that a person is probably pregnant. It appears as a dark bluish or purplish discoloration of the vaginal tissue, vulva, or cervix, which is caused by an increase in venous (from the veins) blood flow to the area. Other early signs of pregnancy include Goodell’s sign (a softening of the cervix at around six to eight weeks of gestation) and Hegar’s sign (softening of the lower segment of the uterus

What Is ECV? (External Cephalic Version)

External cephalic version (ECV) is a positioning procedure to turn a fetus that is in the breech position (with their bottom facing down the birth canal) or side-lying position into a head-down (vertex) position before labor starts. There are several types of breech positions, including: • Frank breech (the fetus is positioned to be born buttocks-first with their legs stretched up toward their head) • Footling breech (one or both legs are positioned to be delivered first) An ECV procedure is u

Insurance & Miscellaneous Topics

Best Medicare Advantage Plan Providers of 2021

We publish unbiased reviews; our opinions are our own and are not influenced by payments from advertisers. Learn about our independent review process and partners in our advertiser disclosure. Medicare Advantage Plans, sometimes referred to as “Part C” or “MA Plans,” are considered an all-inclusive alternative to Original Medicare. Coverage in Medicare Advantage Plans includes Medicare Part A (hospital coverage) and Medicare Part B (medical insurance). Most Medicare Advantage Plans also include

7 Dementia Support Groups of 2021

Studies have shown that participating in a dementia support group can have a positive outcome on a person’s mental health while improving the quality of life for people with dementia and their caregivers. Support groups offer a great opportunity to share with others, and a good place to ask questions, get information about local resources, and learn new ways to manage the challenges of living with dementia. Whether you are newly diagnosed, are in the early stages of the disease that causes demen

The 6 Best Medicare Supplement Insurance Companies of 2021

As the cost of healthcare continues to increase, so do the out-of-pocket costs for services that are not covered by Original Medicare. On average, Medicare only pays approximately 80% of your overall medical costs. In fact, in 2016, the average person with Medicare spent $5,460 in out-of-pocket expenses for healthcare. Moreover, during the same year, 50% of Medicare beneficiaries spent at least 12% of their income on out-of-pocket expenses, and 25% spent at least 23% of their income on such expe

The 7 Best EMT Certification Programs of 2021

We publish unbiased reviews; our opinions are our own and are not influenced by payments from advertisers. Learn about our independent review process and partners in our advertiser disclosure. The health care industry is one of the fastest-growing fields today. In fact, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, nearly 2.4 million new health care jobs are anticipated by the year 2029. This number represents more new jobs than any other occupational group. The job explosion is not limited to pr

The 5 Best Lifeguard Certification Programs of 2021

We publish unbiased reviews; our opinions are our own and are not influenced by payments from advertisers. Learn about our independent review process and partners in our advertiser disclosure. Lifeguarding is a skill that appeals to people for many reasons, including those who want a fun and active summer job as well as parents who would like to learn some water safety and lifesaving skills to keep their kids safe at the beach. Taking a certified lifeguard class is also helpful in keeping your l

Anatomy & Physiology

The Heart: Anatomy, Function, and Conditions

The heart—the primary organ of the cardiovascular system—is a muscle that contracts regularly, via a natural pacemaker that produces electrical impulses. The heartbeat drives the transport of blood throughout the body, which provides oxygen and nutrients to all the body’s cells, tissues, and organs. Although the heart is a complicated organ, in essence, it is a pump that continuously works to circulate blood throughout the body. The heart is an organ that weighs approximately 350 grams (less th

The Anatomy of the Duodenum

The duodenum, the first and shortest section of the small intestine, is a key organ in the digestive system. The small intestine’s most important function is to digest nutrients and pass them into the blood vessels—located in the intestinal wall—for absorption of the nutrients into the bloodstream. Together, the duodenum and other organs of the alimentary canal (the pathway by which food enters the body and solid wastes are expelled) form the digestive system of the body. The duodenum has been

The Anatomy of the Small Intestine

The small intestine—commonly referred to as the small bowel—is a tubular structure/organ that is part of the digestive system. In fact, it is the longest portion of the digestive system, approximately 20 to 25 feet in length. It is referred to as the “small” intestine because its lumen (opening) is smaller in diameter (at approximately 2.5 centimeters or 0.98 inches) than the large intestine (colon). The primary function of the small intestine is to break down and absorb ingested nutrients whi

The Anatomy of the Biliary System

The biliary system, also called the biliary tract or biliary tree, is a system of ducts (narrow tubular structures), organs (including the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas), and associated structures that function to produce, store, secrete, and transport bile. Bile is a greenish-brown, thick substance produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile’s function is to be released into the small intestine when a fatty meal is ingested to help break down fats for absorption. Once food ha

The Integumentary System: Your Skin, Hair, Nails, and Glands

The integumentary system is made up of several organs and structures including the skin, hair, nails, glands, and nerves. The primary function of the integumentary system is to protect the inside of the body from elements in the environment—like bacteria, pollution, and UV rays from the sun. The skin and its associated structures also retain bodily fluids, eliminate waste products, and regulate the body’s temperature. The integumentary system works with all other bodily systems—such as the nerv

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